Начало на реферати

Genocide in Afghanistan

Genocide in Afghanistan

Have you ever wondered about what the word you probably hear very often- the word genocide- means and why you hear about it so often? The term “genocide” had not existed before World War Two. It was first mentioned by Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish- Jewish descent, in 1944 to define the act or intent of a deliberate and systematic destruction or oppression of an ethnic, racial, religious, or political group. Although this is a twentieth century word, the practice of it dates back to ancient times. In the dawn of the Holocaust, Lemkin sought to materialize a universal acceptance of international laws to elucidate the meaning of and forbid genocide. In 1948, the so called Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, or CPPCG, purposely developed to help codify genocide and its acceptance as a crime against humanity, concerning the security measures that would be imposed in order to avoid it, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (one of the five principal organs of the U.N.)(Int. Law and Israel). The convention outlawed actions similar to the Holocaust. International ratification of the document implied that the crime of genocide was never again to be committed. However, to this day, the world has witnessed such cases a multitude of times, even afterwards; the United Nation’s promise was broken. One of those cases involved the genocide in Afghanistan, a series of periods full of tragedy and barbarism- a barbarism that the world had failed and still does fail to stop.

Afghanistan’s history has been a history comprised of accumulated events related to invasion, conflict, and violence. It has always been an epicenter of fighting. Often it was a part of foreign plans for colonial expansion, in particular for the Russians. In 1973, Mohammed Zahir Shah, Afghanistan’s ruler at that time, went off to a visit to Italy. He had reigned in the country for decades, starting from 1933, when he was nineteen years old. At that period of time, as a member of the royal family, he had assumed the throne but was virtually a “prisoner” of his uncles and cousins, the real rulers of the country. Nevertheless, he was successful in obliterating them from their influential political positions as well as banning all members of the royal family from politics (Gilfond 17). For around forty years, Afghanistan was relatively a peaceful country. Zahir introduced constitutional reforms and increased people’s power and involvement in the government.

Eventually, he perpetrated an error. While he was in Italy, Lieutenant- General Mohammed Douad, his brother-in-law, led a military coup d’état, deposing Zahar from the throne (Gilfond 17). Douad proclaimed the country a republic, with himself as both a president and a prime minister. His government lasted only five years; in 1978, the PDPA, the Communist People’s Democratic Party, seized power after Daoud's death with Noor Mohammed Taraki, a leader of the party, becoming the head of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, a government backed by the Soviets, which was en-US" style="margin-bottom: 0in">

Genocide in Afghanistan facebook image
Публикувано от: Николинка Атанасова

Are poor people poor or just lazy? 9 out of 10 based on 2 ratings. 2 user reviews.